Several thousand worker bees cooperate in building nests, gathering food and raising young. Each member has a defined task to perform, related to their adult age. The hierarchy of hives is divided into three levels: queens, worker bees, and drones, and each one has a distinctive function or functions to play within a hive. Queens are the only fully developed females and, after mating with drones, they lay all the eggs for the hive.
Queens give off unique scents from queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) that personify each hive and tell worker bees if it's healthy or if it needs to be replaced. The stronger the scent, the more attendees you will have. The QMB stimulates the construction of combs, the rearing of young, the search for food and the storage of food. Queen pheromones also prevent female worker bees from developing their reproductive capacity.
When it dies, the fall of the QMP tells worker bees to create new queens to replace it. When colonies become congested or too large to be managed by a single queen, worker bees create new queens, and the old queen stops laying eggs and leaves with about half the hive to form a new colony. This flight of a very compact bee cloud is called a swarm. Queen pheromones help to hold the swarm together when it is at rest, while foraging bees find a safe place for the colony establish your new home.
Drones are produced when the hive is healthy and has a surplus of food and workers. This corresponds to the swarm season, which runs from late April to June in areas of the northern United States. UU. Drones are created from unfertilized eggs, deposited by queens in larger reproductive cells.
They are haploid organisms, meaning they inherit only one set of chromosomes. Queens and worker bees are diploid organisms that inherit the chromosomes of both the queen and a mating drone. Drones represent around 15% of the populations in the colonies and their only function is reproduction. Once hatched and fully mature, they fly out of the hive and head to high places known as drone concentration areas, where drones from different hives wait for virgin queens to mate with them. The most successful drones die after mating; the rest return to their hives, where they are fed by worker bees until the end of summer.
At that time, they expel them from the hive so that food reserves can be reserved for the queen and worker bees, who will feed, warm and protect her throughout the winter. Drones starve or freeze after being driven out; none survive until spring. They are the smallest of the three types of bees. Worker bees have stingers and use them to defend themselves and their hive.
They come in a variety of colors and patterns, which are determined by the drones the queen has mated with. During the warm months, most worker bees live for 5 to 6 weeks. Those left to protect, warm and feed the queen can live 3 to 5 more months, depending on the length of the winter. Worker bees take three weeks to move from egg to bee and live for 5 to 7 weeks. Over the course of their brief lives, their roles change depending on their age and the needs of their hive.
The process from the laying of eggs to the hatching of a worker bee lasts 21 days. After 3 days, the egg becomes a larva and its reproductive cell is blocked 6 days later, when it becomes a pupa. After 12 days as a pupa, it hatches and emerges as a worker bee in operation. After hatching, a worker bee can play many roles in a hive.
His transition to different roles throughout his life is called polietism. For approximately 15 days, the worker bee will remain inside, performing hive functions. In the beginning, it will focus on cleaning and on the queen's assistance. Around day 12, the special wax-producing glands fully develop, and you may move on to producing combs and other tasks related to food storage, such as receiving pollen and nectar, ripening nectar, and packaging and capping combs.
As you age, the different hormones in your body will rise and fall. The decrease in vitellogenin protein and the increase in juvenile hormone make me ready to leave the hive and undertake new tasks as a field bee, such as caring for and forging. Conditions inside and outside the hive can affect the rhythm of their transition. If more collectors are needed, nurse bees can make the transition to field bees; if more care is needed inside the hive, field bees can revert to hive bees.
External factors, such as the number of foraging and newborn bees, the number of young in the colony and the amount of pollen that the hive has stored, also influence this transition. The first task of a domestic worker bee is to clean its cell and the area surrounding it. It then helps to clean and polish the empty cells and to remove dead bees and droppings from the hive. Domestic bees also clean other bees from the hive, removing dust, hair, and debris from their bodies.
The next task of a domestic bee is to feed, clean and cover the calf (organisms present in the cells that develop from the egg to the larva and then the pupa, which becomes honey bees) and keep it warm. Some domestic bees become the queen's servants. They follow her through the hive as she lays eggs, feeds, waters, cleans and grooms her. After 12 days, worker bees have developed specialized glands that produce wax.
If necessary, they will assume this function, laying the foundation for the diapers and then for the diapers themselves. Receiving food from field bees is a specialized job that many domestic bees do so that they can return as soon as possible to get more food and water. Some bees scrape pollen off the legs of collectors to transfer it to storage cells. Others receive the nectar regurgitated by regurgitators and pass it on to other receiving bees, who continue this process of consumption and regurgitation until the liquid is reduced to approximately 20% of its original volume.
At each step, recipient bees add enzymes to further break down the sugars. Once pollen is extracted from foraging bees, domestic bees take it and package it in empty cells, adding the enzymes and acids they secrete to prevent it from spoiling. This substance is known as “bee bread” and is the main source of proteins, vitamins and minerals in hives. After receiving the nectar and placing it in the honeycomb-shaped cells, other worker bees fan-open the upper part of the cells to accelerate evaporation and, finally, reduce the nectar to 18% of its original volume.
This creates the thick, sweet liquid we call honey. When the cells are filled with honey, worker bees cover them with wax and seal the honey inside to prevent further evaporation and infection by pathogens. Bees use propolis, the resin collected by foraging bees, also known as “bee tail”, to repair cracks in the hive and cover foreign elements that are too large for eliminate them. Ventilation and temperature regulation On hot days, worker bees stand at the front door and draw air into the hive to cool it down.
In the winter months, they form a ball around the queen using their collective body heat to protect her. Worker bees cycle from the inside of the bee mass to the outside, acting as a living insulator, and then reheat as a new layer replaces them. While most bees die outside the hive, about 10% die inside the hive and are expelled from the hive by cleaner bees. Once they have dried, burrowing bees pick them up and carry them hundreds of feet away from the hive, since dead bees can attract pests and pathogens.
Guardian bees protect the hive by attacking and, if necessary, stinging intruders. They also emit pheromones that warn bees inside the hive of danger. Field bees search for food, water and resin. Most field bees forage for food, both nectar and pollen, which they carry in “pollen baskets” on their legs. Collector bees can visit 50 to 100 flowers on each flight and can make 10 flights a day.
They drink the nectar and store it in a special stomach for nectar, where enzymes break down complex sugars and convert them into simple sugars that are less prone to crystallization and fermentation. About 1% of bees search for water. Bees in hives consume water, feed it to the queen and use it to dilute honey and make a solution that can feed the larvae. It is also used to cool the hive.
A small portion of field bees search for resin, which in the hive is converted to propolis. Worker bees then use propolis to repair the hive. In the event of a swarm, some field bees will search for a new site and search the area for a safe place, such as a hollow tree, to bring in the swarm and form a new colony.
Honey beecolonies have only one queen, and each bee in the colony is your daughter or son.
Queens are easily recognized by their large abdomen and by the entourage of worker bees that follow them everywhere. If a second queen appears in the colony, the workers will force the invading queen out of the hive, or the two queens will fight until there is only one left. standing. Worker bees have a lot of jobs throughout their lives.
The jobs of the worker bee change throughout their lives. There are jobs such as cell cleaning and cell capping that are generally performed by younger bees. Caring for and foraging for food is for older bees. Worker bees live for about 5 weeks and then die; they literally work themselves to death to help the hive survive.
Spring and summer are the times when zander bees appear. They are much larger than worker bees and are also all male. Their sole purpose is to reproduce with the queen. However, only 6 to 8 drones are reproduced with it. Their life expectancy is slightly longer than that of the worker bee (in summer, worker bees can survive the winter), about 2 months.
Once autumn comes, worker bees expel them from the hive. Drones can't kill or damage anything, they only use them to obtain seeds. The queen bee is the largest of all the bees in a hive. Its main job is to lay eggs and it can lay between 1500 and 2000 eggs a day at its best.
However, this is not an everyday thing in his life; there are days when he doesn't put any. The queen bee is able to control the sex of the eggs she lays. The queen lays a fertilized (female) or unfertilized (male) egg according to the width of the cell. Drones are raised in cells that are significantly larger than the cells used for workers. The queen fertilizes the egg by selectively releasing sperm from her spermatheca as the egg passes through her oviduct.
The Western honey bee, scientifically known as apis mellifera, plays a small but sweet role in the vast global tapestry of bee species. There are more than 20,000 known types of bees, which spread across every continent except Antarctica, and their ancestors have existed for more than 80 million years. Bees are amazingly prehistoric and global, and even after all this time, they're still busy. Apis mellifera, which literally means honey bee, is the most widely distributed and domesticated bee species in the world.
Known for its striped yellow abdomen, the large size of its colonies and its propensity to live in the form of hives (trees that were originally dead and hollow), the European bee offers clear behavioral benefits to human beings who want to conserve them. Over the past 5000 years, domestication has had a significant impact on the genetics of Apis Mellifera, selectively eliminating aggressive behaviors and prioritizing honey production and climate resistance for human use. Thanks to these characteristics, our taste for honey and our need for pollination services, honey bees can now be found in many places where they have never existed before, such as the United States. US, Australia and Southeast Asia.
For most of history, geographical isolation, impassable areas, such as high mountains, arid deserts, and expansive seas, created natural barriers to the spread of bee genetics. For the honey bee, the natural limits were the seas and oceans surrounding Western Europe (the Atlantic and the Mediterranean), up to the mountains of the Eastern Caucasus and towards the south to the Middle East. Due to Europe's geographical areas and selective breeding, Apis Mellifera has developed a series of unique sub-varieties on the continent and beyond. Below we'll look at some of the most popular sub-varieties, although, as you can see in the legend on the map above, there are many more to discover.
The apis cerana is found in a vast distribution area from North India to Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan. The smaller size and the less populated colonies of this variety mean that it does not produce as much honey as their European counterparts. Because of this, beekeepers in the region have imported a large number of varieties of apis Mellifera, which may have been good for the honey business, but perhaps not so good for bees. This is because many of the diseases that were previously isolated in this region, especially varroa mites, have spread to Apis Mellifera, and now it has become a worldwide distribution problem for all varieties of apiaceae.
We can also observe that the apis Mellifera ligustica (the Italian honey bee) seems to have earned its place as the most popular variety. With low levels of all reported abnormalities, our data indicate that it is the most stable and predictable variety, at least in the climates in which it has been kept (most of these users live in the hot and dry climate of the Mediterranean, the natural home of this variety). There are nearly 20,000 species of bees in the world that have been identified to date. Bees are close relatives of ants, wasps and hornets.
A genus to which all honey bees belong, Apis, contains all known species of honey bees that form at least 44 subspecies. All bees in this genus are characterized by their ability to produce and store honey and to build honeycombs with wax. It is these properties that humanity has learned to use when learning to harvest honey from wild colonies or when managing colonies in hives. Apis mellifera is the most widespread honey bee species in the world. It is the main species that has actually been “domesticated” by humans, largely due to their habit of building their nests inside cavities (for example, between rocks or tree hollows).It is because of this habit that A.
mellifera lends itself to being “kept in hives”. The mellifera has been cultivated by humans for at least 5000 years. The Apis mellifera scutellata is really threatened. Mellifera capensis) from southern South Africa easily invades African bee colonies.
Cape worker bees are able to lay eggs that become clones of themselves, known as thelytoky (from the Greek thēlys “birth of female and tokos”), gradually increasing their numbers and taking over the colony. Thelytoky is a type of partogenesis, a type of asexual reproduction in which offspring develop from unfertilized eggs. Apis cerana is found in a wide range from North India, Southeast Asia to Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan. Mellífera, cerana, is a bee that nests in cavities, making it suitable for staying in hives.
The species is extensively bred by farmers in this vast region, although because it has a smaller colony size than that of the western honey bee (A. mellifera), its honey production is quite small. This has led to the large scale importation of Western bees, which in turn has caused diseases in the species A. mellifera, especially the varroa mite.
Every spring, honey bees begin to increase their workforce to prepare for the blossoming of spring flowers. As Europeans explored and colonized other parts of the world, they transported and established the Western honey bee on every continent except Antarctica. The waxy glands in the lower abdomen of the bee secrete beeswax scales, which are used to build honeycombs. Damage to the hive can cause more bees to work to repair it; an abundance of nectar can cause more bees to stay in the hive to build honeycombs and produce honey; a lack of success in searching for food can cause domestic bees to transform into field bees to find food which is in short supply.
All of these honey bee breeds are subtypes of a single species and are capable of successfully interbreeding, resulting in hybrid bee types. Adult honey bees usually live for another 30 days after they start foraging, about 51 days in total. They will vent the honey until it is dry enough and then seal the cell with their wax to protect the maturing honey from the atmosphere. Honey bees are known for building perennial colonial nests with wax, the large size of their colonies, and the surplus of honey production and storage, making their hives a precious feeding target for many animals, including badgers, bears and hunter-gatherers humans.
The only other domesticated bee is the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana), which is found in South, Southeast and East Asia. These characteristics helped honey bees thrive in North America, but when they were imported to South America, they didn't do as well in the tropical environment. In cold climates, honey bees stop flying when the temperature drops below 10 °C (50 °F) and huddle in the central area of the hive to form a winter cluster. Dorsata laboriosa (Dorsata laboriosa) became famous when Jimmy Doherty (from Jimmy's Farm) was seen descending a cliff with a rope while cutting a honeycomb and dropping it into a basket on a large stick.